You can help by adding to it. The liver detoxifies and breaks down chemicals, poisons and other toxins that enter the body. Look at the benefits. During respiration, oxygen gets pulled into the lungs and enters the blood by passing across the thin alveoli membranes and into the capillaries. Asthma is an illness that occurs when the bronchioles are inflamed and become narrow.
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But if your body is toxic, it is bringing more toxins to that area. That is where proper diet comes in. If your colon is blocked and you have constant constipation, you will find tension in your neck. The moment you get rid of the constipation, you feel released there. These are very simple things that you will experience in your practice of yoga. The medication that is prescribed only treats the effect, neglecting the cause.
When you practice yoga, you need to practice with some understanding. If the understanding is not there, you will not get the desirable result. You have to understand what the purpose of each yoga posture is. Once you know the purpose, whatever you do will help you to get the desirable result. If you understand these basic things, you will be able to adapt the postures to any situation.
You do not need to teach a special class for obese or elderly people. If you understand the principle, you can modify, adapt and adjust the postures for anyone. Take, for instance, the spinal twist. What is the purpose of the spinal twist? It is to twist the spine. You may get other benefits from it but the purpose is to twist the spine. In order to twist the spine, you have to keep it erect. If it is not straight and you try to twist it, it will not happen. You will find that people go into all kinds of gymnastics in spinal twist which mostly defeats the purpose and serves to boost their Ego.
The posture should be adjusted in relationship to the flexibility of the person and how much freedom they have. If a person is very obese and very stiff, it does not mean that they cannot do spinal twist. Whatever they can do to twist the spine is sufficient. They can simply keep their legs straight. The position of the hands is only to aid the twisting of the spine. As long as they keep their attention on the spine and continue to breathe as they twist the spine, they are getting the benefits of spinal twist.
Later on, as they lose weight and gain flexibility, they may be able to cross their foot over, but that should not compromise the vertical position of the spine. A person who is flexible may be able to go into all kinds of variations, but that does not mean they are getting more benefits than the person who has the legs straight.
So once the spine is erect, you can twist it. In my years of involvement in the field of Hatha Yoga, I noticed that people who depend on props in their Yoga practice, never seem to advance. While some may argue that if you want to learn how to ride a bike, you need training wheels, I would say that the training wheels in this case, namely the props, create limitations.
I have seen people pulling on straps or using blocks as props. In the case of a strap, if they are only pulling on the strap, it will take much longer to improve as the body is not really pulled on. On the other hand, people who pull and stretch their bodies, improve in a very short time. The same goes for using blocks as props. Take the triangle pose as an example: You impose a limitation on yourself. You will not go any further than that.
The other person will be moving and stretching, and in a short time their hand will be down on the floor. You can observe the practice of headstand as another example. People always run to the wall when you tell them to do headstand.
People who have used that wall for years develop dependence on the wall and cannot move away from it. Another person who has never done headstand before, if I teach them step by step how to do it, in a week they are doing headstand without the wall. Look at the benefits. The person who is using the wall is developing dependence on the wall. They are not going step by step so they are not developing the muscles to prepare them for headstand.
They are also not developing confidence because they continue with the fear that they are going to fall. All of these things are negating the benefits of yoga! Yoga should give you confidence and independence. It should help you to develop focus, concentration and awareness of your body.
All this is negated if you just jump on the wall doing headstand. These people will never advance to a regular headstand with variations. Moving onto variations in the headstand is similar to teaching a baby to run. If the baby is not even crawling yet, will you be able to teach it to run? How does the baby learn to run?
They crawl, creep, walk and finally they run. It is a natural progression. The idea of which variation to do in headstand is irrelevant until you are ready. First you learn how to do dolphin in the Sampoorna Yoga Level 1 Class. You measure the hands and bring the elbows under the shoulders.
Then you interlace the fingers, raise the hips, come up and do dolphin. It strengthens the shoulders and also brings the awareness to the elbows pressing down on the floor. That is the secret of the headstand. So you go step by step. Once you go step by step and experience the headstand effortlessly, from there on you do whatever you want. There are gymnasts that can do almost anything. For example, there are people who can do headstand without using their hands up in the air on a swing that is swinging.
If we equate yogis to how flexible or strong someone is, then these people would be the greatest yogis! But yoga is much more than that. You cannot just dismiss their athleticism, discipline and ability to focus their mind.
If you understand about yoga and the purpose of life, you can redirect that kind of focus and concentration towards something higher. It is your aspiration. You are what your deepest desire is. These limitations are what they impose on themselves. Since you are what your deepest desire is, why not desire the highest?
Even if you are just a beginner, you can do advanced postures. Of course, it does not necessarily mean you are going to attain it in this life. It may not happen in this body! But you have to start somewhere. Yoga is a step-by-step process. Approach it that way. You will enjoy it when you go step by step and it will unfold naturally.
In my opinion, it is not necessary to learn the Sanskrit names of the asanas. You might as well learn the Spanish names for them. People come up with all kinds of gimmicks just to keep people in bondage. What is the Sanskrit name? It is just a description of the posture. When you go to a class and say the Sanskrit name for the posture, it seems as if you have a lot of knowledge.
But it does not add anything. Hatha Yoga — Proper Exercise Hatha yoga is unique for maintaining proper health. Proper Exercise To maintain proper health, there are three basic things that you need to observe: Skeletal System — Most people are very stiff and have lost the full range of motion in their bodies. Muscular System — Yoga tones and strengthens all the muscles in the body including even the cardiac muscles.
Circulatory System — Yoga postures also benefit the circulatory system. Nervous System — Toning and strengthening of the nervous system also takes place during Asana practice. Lymphatic System — Through the metabolism and catabolism in the body, which takes place on the cellular level, all the waste is dumped into the lymphatic system, which in turn dumps it into the circulatory system at certain nodes or points in the body.
Digestive System — Certain postures have a direct effect on the digestive organs, particularly Vajrasana and Peacock. Endocrine System — Stretching and compressing the muscles around the endocrine glands provides deep massage, oxygenation and nourishment to the endocrine system. Excretory System — The practice of certain Yoga postures provides a deep massage of the internal organs such as the ascending and descending colon, which are part of the excretory system.
Integumentary System — The integumentary system is being cleansed as you sweat from doing physical exercise. The influenza virus that causes the flu is shown in Figure below. Tuberculosis, whooping cough, and acute bronchitis are caused by bacteria. The pathogens that cause colds, flu, and TB can be passed from person to person by coughing, sneezing, and spitting. This is the influenza virus that causes the swine flu, or H1N1. The Center for Disease Control and Prevention recommends that children between the ages of 6 months and 19 years get a flu vaccination each year.
The quality of the air can affect the health of your lungs. Asthma, heart and lung diseases, allergies, and several types of cancers are all linked to air quality. Air pollution can be either outdoor pollution or indoor pollution. Outdoor air pollution can be caused by car exhaust fumes, smoke from factories and forest fires, volcanoes, and animal feces.
Indoor air pollution can be caused by tobacco smoke, dust, mold, insects, rodents, and cleaning chemicals. Smoking is the major cause of chronic respiratory disease as well as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Exposure to tobacco smoke, by smoking or by breathing air that contains tobacco smoke, is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.
Regular smokers die about 10 years earlier than nonsmokers do. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC describes tobacco use as "the single most important preventable risk to human health in developed countries and an important cause of [early] death worldwide. Tobacco use, particularly cigarette smoking, is a preventable cause of death in the United States.
This means that people would not die if they stopped smoking. Cigarette smoking alone is directly responsible for approximately 30 percent of all yearly cancer deaths in the United States. The main health risks of using tobacco are linked to diseases of the cardiovascular system and respiratory system.
Cardiovascular diseases caused by smoking include heart disease and stroke. Cigarettes, like the ones shown in Figure below , are a major source of indoor air pollution. Cigarette smoke contains about 4, substances, including over 60 cancer-causing chemicals. Many of these substances, such as carbon monoxide, tar, arsenic, and lead, are toxic to the body.
Non-smokers can also be affected by tobacco smoke. Exposure to secondhand smoke, also known as environmental tobacco smoke ETS , greatly increases the risk of lung cancer and heart disease in nonsmokers. Tobacco use, particularly cigarette smoking, is the single most preventable cause of death in the United States. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease COPD is a disease of the lungs that occurs when the airways narrow and air cannot enter the lungs as well as it did before.
This leads to shortness of breath. The lack of air entering the lungs usually gets worse over time. COPD is most commonly caused by smoking. Gases and particles in tobacco smoke trigger an inflammatory response in the lung. The inflammatory response in the larger airways is known as chronic bronchitis. In the alveoli, the inflammatory response causes the breakdown of the tissues in the lungs, leading to emphysema.
Many of the diseases related to smoking are called lifestyle diseases , diseases that are caused by choices that people make in their daily lives. For example, the choice to smoke can lead to cancer in later life. But there are many things you can do to help keep your respiratory system healthy. Never smoking or quitting now are the most effective ways to reduce your risk of developing chronic respiratory diseases, such as cancer.
Eating a healthful diet, getting enough sleep, and being active every day can help keep your immune system strong. Washing your hands often, and after sneezing, coughing or blowing your nose, helps to protect you and others from diseases. Washing your hands for 20 seconds with soap and warm water can help prevent colds and flu. Some viruses and bacteria can live from 20 minutes up to 2 hours or more on surfaces like cafeteria tables, doorknobs, and desks.
A public health notice that shows people how to prevent the spread of respiratory diseases is shown in Figure below. Do not go to school or to other public places when you are sick. You risk spreading your illness to other people and getting sicker, if you catch something else. Getting the recommended vaccinations can help prevent diseases such as whooping cough and flu. Seeking medical help for diseases such as asthma can help stop the disease from getting worse.
Cover your Cough - Clean your Hands is a public health campaign that reminds people of the quickest and easiest ways to avoid spreading respiratory diseases such as colds and the flu. Pneumonia is a disease that causes the alveoli to fill up with fluid. A person who has never smoked before gets lung cancer. How might they have contracted the disease? One of the most important ways your body maintains homeostasis is by keeping the right amount of water and salts inside your body.
If you have too much water in your body, your cells can swell and burst. If you have too little water in your body, your cells can shrivel up like an old apple.
Either extreme can cause illness and death of cells, tissues, and organs. The organs of your excretory system help to keep the correct balance of water and salts within your body. Your body also needs to remove the wastes that build up from cell activity and from digestion.
These wastes include carbon dioxide, urea, and certain plant materials. If these wastes are not removed, your cells can stop working and you can get very sick. The excretory system can also help to release wastes from the body. Excretion is the process of removing wastes from the body.
The organs of the excretory system are also parts of other organ systems. For example, your lungs are part of the respiratory system. Your lungs remove carbon dioxide from your body, so they are also part of the excretory system. More organs of the excretory system are listed in Table below. The excretory system controls the levels of water and salts in your body by removing wastes. This means the excretory system has an important role in maintaining homeostasis.
Your body takes nutrients from food and uses them for energy, growth, and repair. After your body has taken what it needs from the food, waste products are left behind in the blood and in the large intestine. These waste products need to be removed from the body. The kidneys work with the lungs, skin, and intestines to keep the correct balance of nutrients, salts and water in your body. Sometimes, the urinary system is called the excretory system. But the urinary system is only one part of the excretory system.
Recall that the excretory system is made up of the skin, lungs, and large intestine as well as the kidneys. The urinary system is the organ system that makes, stores, and gets rid of urine.
The urinary system is shown in Figure below. The kidneys filter the blood that passes through them and the urinary bladder stores the urine until it is released from the body. Urine is a liquid that is formed by the kidneys when they filter wastes from the blood. Urine contains mostly water, but also contains salts and nitrogen-containing molecules. The amount of urine released from the body depends on many things.
Some of these include the amounts of fluid and food a person consumes and how much fluid they have lost from sweating and breathing. Urine ranges from colorless to dark yellow, but is usually a pale yellow color. Light yellow urine contains mostly water. The darker the urine, the less water it contains. The urinary system also removes a type of waste called urea from your blood.
Urea is a nitrogen-containing molecule that is made when foods containing protein, such as meat, poultry, and certain vegetables, are broken down in the body. Urea and other wastes are carried in the bloodstream to the kidneys, where they are removed and form urine. The kidneys are important organs in maintaining homeostasis. Kidneys perform a number of homeostatic functions.
There are many blood vessels in the kidneys, as you can see in Figure below. The kidneys remove urea from the blood through tiny filtering units called nephrons. Nephrons are tiny, tube-shaped structures found inside each kidney.
A nephron is shown in Figure below. Each kidney has up to a million nephrons. Each nephron collects a small amount of fluid and waste from a small group of capillaries.
If the body is in need of more water, water is removed from the fluid inside the nephron and is returned to the blood. The fluid within nephrons is carried out into a larger tube in the kidney called a ureter, which you can see in Figure below. Urea, together with water and other wastes, forms the urine as it passes through the nephrons and the kidney. Structures of the kidney; fluid leaks from the capillaries and into the nephrons where the fluid forms urine then moves to the ureter and on to the bladder.
The location of nephrons in the kidney. The fluid collects in the nephron tubules, and moves to the bladder through the ureter. In a hour period, nephrons filter liters of fluid, and 1. Urine enters the bladder through the ureters. Similar to a balloon, the walls of the bladder are stretchy. The stretchy walls allow the bladder to hold a large amount of urine. How do you know when you have to urinate?
Urination is the process of releasing urine from the body. Urine leaves the body through the urethra. Nerves in the bladder tell you when it is time to urinate.
As the bladder first fills with urine, you may notice a feeling that you need to urinate. The urge to urinate becomes stronger as the bladder continues to fill up. The kidneys never stop filtering waste products from the blood, so they are always producing urine. The amount of urine your kidneys produce is dependent on the amount of fluid in your body. Your body loses water through sweating, breathing, and urination. The water and other fluids you drink every day help to replace the lost water.
This water ends up circulating in the blood because blood plasma is mostly water. The filtering action of the kidneys is controlled by the pituitary gland.
The pituitary gland is about the size of a pea and is found below the brain, as shown in Figure below. The pituitary gland is also part of the endocrine system.
The pituitary gland releases hormones, which help the kidneys to filter water from the blood. The movement of water back into blood is controlled by a hormone called antidiuretic hormone ADH. ADH is released from the pituitary gland in the brain. If a person does not drink enough water, ADH is released.
It causes the blood to reabsorb water from the kidneys. If the kidneys remove less water from the blood, what will the urine look like? It will look darker, because there is less water in it. When a person drinks a lot of water, then there will be a lot of water in the blood. The pituitary gland will then release a lower amount of ADH into the blood.
This means less water will be reabsorbed by the blood. The kidneys then produce a large volume of urine. What color will this urine be? The pituitary gland is found directly below the brain and releases hormones that control how urine is produced. The urinary system controls the amount of water in the body and removes wastes.
Any problem with the urinary system can also affect many other body systems. In some cases, certain mineral wastes can form kidney stones, like the one shown in Figure below. Stones form in the kidneys and may be found anywhere in the urinary system. They vary in size. Some stones cause great pain, while others cause very little pain. Some stones may need to be removed by surgery or ultrasound treatments.
Kidney failure happens when the kidneys cannot remove wastes from the blood. If the kidneys are unable to filter wastes from the blood, the wastes build up in the body.
Homeostasis is disrupted because the fluids in the body are out of balance. Kidney failure can be caused by an accident that injures the kidneys, the loss of a lot of blood, or by some drugs and poisons. Kidney failure may lead to permanent loss of kidney function.
But if the kidneys are not seriously damaged, they may recover. Chronic kidney disease is the slow decrease in kidney function that may lead to permanent kidney failure. A person who has lost kidney function may need to get kidney dialysis. Kidney dialysis is the process of filtering the blood of wastes using a machine.
A dialysis machine also called a hemodialyzer filters the blood of waste by pumping it through a fake kidney. A dialysis machine is shown in Figure below. Urinary tract infections UTIs are bacterial infections of any part of the urinary tract.
When bacteria get into the bladder or kidney and produce more bacteria in the urine, they cause a UTI. The most common type of UTI is a bladder infection. Women get UTIs more often than men. UTIs are often treated with antibiotics.
The walls of the urinary bladder are stretchy. What do you think is the advantage of having these stretchy walls? If a person's urine is dark brown, what are two organs in the body that might not be functioning properly? Explain what might be wrong with the two organs. Life Sciences in Maine. Identify the main function of the respiratory system. Describe how breathing works. Outline how the respiratory system and the cardiovascular system work together.
Identify how breathing and cellular respiration are connected. Check Your Understanding What is an organ system? What is the role of the circulatory system?
How does your blood get oxygen? Vocabulary alveoli diaphragm epiglottis exhalation external respiration gas exchange inhalation internal respiration larynx pharynx respiration respiratory system trachea Roles of the Respiratory System You breathe mostly without thinking about it. Organs in your respiratory system include your: These structures are shown in Figure below. The alveoli are the tiny grape-like structures in the lungs and the sites of gas exchange.
Gas exchange is the movement of oxygen into the blood and carbon dioxide out of the blood. Asthma occurs when the bronchioles swell and the muscles around the bronchioles contract.
The inside of lung showing cancerous tissue. The stones can form anywhere in the urinary system. During dialysis, a patient. Respiratory and Excretory System The above image shows the tissue found inside of the lungs. Parts of the Respiratory System Figure above shows many of the structures of the respiratory system.
The parts of the respiratory system include the following: The diaphragm is a sheet of muscle that spreads across the bottom of the rib cage.
When the diaphragm contracts, the chest volume gets larger and the lungs take in air. When the diaphragm relaxes, the chest volume gets smaller and air is pushed out of the lungs. The nose and nasal cavity filter, warm, and moisten the air you breathe. The nose hairs and mucus produced by the cells in the nose catch particles in the air and keep them from entering the lungs.
When particles in the air do reach the lungs, what do you think happens? Behind the nasal cavity, air passes through the pharynx , a long tube. Both food and air pass through the pharynx. The larynx , also called the "voice box," is found just below the pharynx. Your voice comes from your larynx. Air from the lungs passes across thin tissues in the larynx and produces sound. The trachea , or windpipe, is a long tube that leads down to the lungs, where it divides into the right and left bronchi.
The bronchi branch out into smaller bronchioles in each lung. Since food goes down the pharynx, how is it stopped from entering the trachea? A flap of tissue called the epiglottis closes over the trachea when food is swallowed to prevent choking or inhaling food.
The bronchioles lead to the alveoli. Alveoli are the little sacs at the end of the bronchioles. They look like little bunches of grapes, as shown in Figure below. Oxygen is exchanged for carbon dioxide in the alveoli. Gas exchange is the name we give to the process that allows oxygen to enter the blood and carbon dioxide to move out of the blood - the two gases are "exchanged.
How We Breathe Most of the time, you breathe without thinking about it. Breathing and Respiration When you breath in, oxygen is drawn in through the mouth and down into the lungs. The Journey of a Breath of Air Breathing is only part of the process of bringing oxygen to where it is needed in the body. The oxygen enters the blood stream from the alveoli. Then, the oxygen-rich blood returns to the heart. Oxygen-rich blood is then pumped through the aorta.
From the aorta, oxygen-rich blood travels to the smaller arteries and finally to the capillaries. The oxygen molecules move out of the capillaries and into the body cells. While oxygen moves from the capillaries and into body cells, carbon dioxide moves from the cells into the capillaries. Breathing and Cellular Respiration The oxygen that arrives at the cells from the lungs is used by the cells to help release the energy stored in molecules of sugar.
Lesson Summary Your respiratory system is made up of the tissues and organs that allow oxygen to enter and carbon dioxide to leave your body. Respiratory system organs include your nose, mouth, larynx, pharynx, lungs, and diaphragm. During inhalation, the diaphragm contracts and moves downward, and brings air into the lungs.
During exhalation, the diaphragm and rib muscles relax and air is pushed out of the lungs. Oxygen enters the lungs, then passes through the alveoli and into the blood. The oxygen is carried around the body in blood vessels.