Large intestine

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Both types of spleen surgery are performed using general anesthesia and involve several incisions in the body. After surgery, your doctor may require you to follow a special diet and refrain from any physical activity. A clear liquid diet includes any colorless or clear food and beverage. A clear liquid diet is typically recommended by a doctor immediately following spleen surgery, says the University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center at Dallas.

A clear liquid diet is typically prescribed by doctors after surgery to support nutrition and energy for patients when they are unable to tolerate regular foods. Some examples of acceptable clear liquids include fat-free broth, soups, ice pops, gelatin, hard candy and various fruit juices without pulp.

Patients may also consume beverages such as water, soft drinks, tea and coffee. A clear liquid diet is not an adequate source of calories and essential nutrients. It should not be used for more than five days unless under the supervision of a health-care provider.

Eventually, regular foods may be consumed again in your diet as tolerated. Most patients are able to resume a regular diet after the second postoperative day.

However, consult a registered dietitian for a full list of acceptable foods for your condition. You can continue to live a healthy and active life without a spleen.

Since food tolerances may vary from person to person, you should keep a food journal to record your daily food intake. A registered dietitian can help determine any possible problem-causing foods to avoid following surgery. Your doctor may recommend staying home from work or school for at least one week following spleen surgery.

Examples include fermentation of carbohydrates, short chain fatty acids, and urea cycling. The appendix is attached to the inferior surface of the cecum, and contains a small amount of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue which gives the appendix an undetermined role in immunity. However, the appendix is known to be important in fetal life as it contains endocrine cells that release biogenic amines and peptide hormones important for homeostasis during early growth and development.

At this point some electrolytes like sodium , magnesium , and chloride are left as well as indigestible parts of ingested food e. As the chyme moves through the large intestine, most of the remaining water is removed, while the chyme is mixed with mucus and bacteria known as gut flora , and becomes feces. The ascending colon receives fecal material as a liquid.

The muscles of the colon then move the watery waste material forward and slowly absorb all the excess water, causing the stools to gradually solidify as they move along into the descending colon. The bacteria break down some of the fiber for their own nourishment and create acetate , propionate , and butyrate as waste products, which in turn are used by the cell lining of the colon for nourishment. The large intestine [34] produces no digestive enzymes — chemical digestion is completed in the small intestine before the chyme reaches the large intestine.

The pH in the colon varies between 5. Water absorption at the colon typically proceeds against a transmucosal osmotic pressure gradient. The standing gradient osmosis is the reabsorption of water against the osmotic gradient in the intestines.

Cells occupying the intestinal lining pump sodium ions into the intercellular space, raising the osmolarity of the intercellular fluid. This hypertonic fluid creates an osmotic pressure that drives water into the lateral intercellular spaces by osmosis via tight junctions and adjacent cells, which then in turn moves across the basement membrane and into the capillaries , while more sodium ions are pumped again into the intercellular fluid.

This allows the large intestine to absorb water despite the blood in capillaries being hypotonic compared to the fluid within the intestinal lumen. The large intestine houses over species of bacteria that perform a variety of functions, as well as fungi , protozoa , and archaea. Species diversity varies by geography and diet.

This mass of mostly symbiotic microbes has recently been called the latest human organ to be "discovered" or in other words, the "forgotten organ". The large intestine absorbs some of the products formed by the bacteria inhabiting this region. Undigested polysaccharides fiber are metabolized to short-chain fatty acids by bacteria in the large intestine and absorbed by passive diffusion. The bicarbonate that the large intestine secretes helps to neutralize the increased acidity resulting from the formation of these fatty acids.

These bacteria also produce large amounts of vitamins , especially vitamin K and biotin a B vitamin , for absorption into the blood. Although this source of vitamins, in general, provides only a small part of the daily requirement, it makes a significant contribution when dietary vitamin intake is low. An individual who depends on absorption of vitamins formed by bacteria in the large intestine may become vitamin-deficient if treated with antibiotics that inhibit the vitamin producing species of bacteria as well as the intended disease-causing bacteria.

Other bacterial products include gas flatus , which is a mixture of nitrogen and carbon dioxide , with small amounts of the gases hydrogen , methane , and hydrogen sulfide. Bacterial fermentation of undigested polysaccharides produces these. Some of the fecal odor is due to indoles , metabolized from the amino acid tryptophan. The normal flora is also essential in the development of certain tissues, including the cecum and lymphatics.

They are also involved in the production of cross-reactive antibodies. These are antibodies produced by the immune system against the normal flora, that are also effective against related pathogens, thereby preventing infection or invasion. The two most prevalent phyla of the colon are firmicutes and bacteroides. The ratio between the two seems to vary widely as reported by the Human Microbiome Project. Bifidobacteria are also abundant, and are often described as 'friendly bacteria'.

A mucus layer protects the large intestine from attacks from colonic commensal bacteria. Colonoscopy is the endoscopic examination of the large intestine and the distal part of the small bowel with a CCD camera or a fiber optic camera on a flexible tube passed through the anus. It can provide a visual diagnosis e. Colonoscopy can remove polyps as small as one millimetre or less.

Once polyps are removed, they can be studied with the aid of a microscope to determine if they are precancerous or not. It takes 15 years or less for a polyp to turn cancerous.

Colonoscopy is similar to sigmoidoscopy —the difference being related to which parts of the colon each can examine. A sigmoidoscopy is often used as a screening procedure for a full colonoscopy, often done in conjunction with a fecal occult blood test FOBT. Virtual colonoscopy , which uses 2D and 3D imagery reconstructed from computed tomography CT scans or from nuclear magnetic resonance MR scans, is also possible, as a totally non-invasive medical test, although it is not standard and still under investigation regarding its diagnostic abilities.

If a growth or polyp is detected using CT colonography, a standard colonoscopy would still need to be performed. Additionally, surgeons have lately been using the term pouchoscopy to refer to a colonoscopy of the ileo-anal pouch.

The large intestine is truly distinct only in tetrapods , in which it is almost always separated from the small intestine by an ileocaecal valve. In most vertebrates, however, it is a relatively short structure running directly to the anus, although noticeably wider than the small intestine.

Although the caecum is present in most amniotes , only in mammals does the remainder of the large intestine develop into a true colon. In some small mammals, the colon is straight, as it is in other tetrapods, but, in the majority of mammalian species, it is divided into ascending and descending portions; a distinct transverse colon is typically present only in primates.

However, the taeniae coli and accompanying haustra are not found in either carnivorans or ruminants. The rectum of mammals other than monotremes is derived from the cloaca of other vertebrates, and is, therefore, not truly homologous with the "rectum" found in these species. In fish, there is no true large intestine, but simply a short rectum connecting the end of the digestive part of the gut to the cloaca.

In sharks , this includes a rectal gland that secretes salt to help the animal maintain osmotic balance with the seawater. The gland somewhat resembles a caecum in structure, but is not a homologous structure.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Redirected from Colon anatomy. Large intestine Front of abdomen , showing the large intestine, with the stomach and small intestine in gray outline. Front of abdomen, showing surface markings for liver red , and the stomach and large intestine blue. The large Intestine is like an upside down U.

Development of the digestive system. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it. Angiodysplasia of the colon Appendicitis Chronic functional abdominal pain Colitis Colorectal cancer Colorectal polyp Constipation Crohn's disease Diarrhea Diverticulitis Diverticulosis Hirschsprung's disease aganglionosis Ileus Intussusception Irritable bowel syndrome Pseudomembranous colitis Ulcerative colitis and toxic megacolon.

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see Anatomical terminology. Mosby's Medical Dictionary 8th ed. A Dictionary of Biology. Gray's Anatomy for Students. J Vis Exp Retrieved March 21, The Journal of Infectious Diseases. Clinical Anatomy for Medical Students 4 ed. Little, Brown, and Company. Ask a Digestive System Specialist. Archived from the original on Above with active image links ".

Retrieved 8 November Kochman 18 August The American Journal of Gastroenterology. World J Gastrointest Oncol. Did it once have a purpose that has since been lost? Applied and Environmental Microbiology. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. Journal of Lipid Research. Journal of General Internal Medicine. Retrieved Jun 15, Michael; Allen, Paul M. J Natl Cancer Inst. Anatomy of the gastrointestinal tract , excluding the mouth. Muscles Spaces peripharyngeal retropharyngeal parapharyngeal retrovisceral danger prevertebral Pterygomandibular raphe Pharyngeal raphe Buccopharyngeal fascia Pharyngobasilar fascia Piriform sinus.

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