Long-term effects of alcohol consumption

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Objective evidence of an increase in dynamic spinal stiffness, as well as reductions in vertebral displacements occurring in response to SM, were observed in the spondylolysis and disc degeneration groups compared with their age-matched and exposure level controls. You cannot have adequate neurotransmitters to work with for rewiring if you eat a poor diet, don't engage in environmental clean-up and address all the other factors in your Total Stress Load. Alcohol and weight , Alcoholic liver disease , Alcoholic hepatitis , Fatty liver , and Cirrhosis. I struggle a lot in finding the right balance in my brain retraining and often push myself too hard and fall on my face. Balance is a very fine line and it is equally important to rest.

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This contradicts the well established scientific view that alcohol increases breast cancer risk. The authors replied that "whether or not the apparent shortfall in breast cancer mortality among heavy drinkers is real, it accounts for only about 0. Careful interpretation of it is therefore of little relevance to the findings for alcohol and overall mortality". A governmental report from Britain has found that "There were 8, alcohol-related deaths in , lower than , but more than double the 4, recorded in The alcohol-related death rate was A UK report came to the result that the effects of low-to-moderate alcohol consumption on mortality are age-dependent.

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention report, "From —, there were approximately 79, deaths annually attributable to excessive alcohol use. In fact, excessive alcohol use is the 3rd leading lifestyle-related cause of death for people in the United States each year.

Another Centers for Disease Control report from estimated that medium and high consumption of alcohol led to 75, deaths in the United States in Low consumption of alcohol had some beneficial effects, so a net 59, deaths were attributed to alcohol. In , a meta-analysis of 87 studies investigating alcohol use and mortality risk was conducted. The studies analyzed had shown the largest mortality risk reduction in moderate drinkers, but these studies did not correct for confounding variables common with certain abstainers, such as previous alcoholism, and chronic health issues.

After adjusting these studies for abstainer biases, no reduction in mortality risk was found for low-volume drinkers. Some animal studies have found increased longevity with exposure to various alcohols. The roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans has been used as a model for aging and age-related diseases.

Supplementing starved cultures with n -propanol and n -butanol also extended lifespan. A meta-analysis of 34 studies found a reduced risk of mortality from coronary heart disease in men who drank 2—4 drinks per day and women who drank 1—2 drinks per day. Another meta-analysis in found favorable changes in HDL cholesterol, adiponectin, and fibrinogen associated with moderate alcohol consumption.

Also, serum levels of C-reactive protein CRP , a marker of inflammation and predictor of CHD coronary heart disease risk, are lower in moderate drinkers than in those who abstain from alcohol, suggesting that alcohol consumption in moderation might have anti-inflammatory effects.

Despite epidemiological evidence, many have cautioned against recommendations for the use of alcohol for health benefits. A physician from the World Health Organisation labeled such alcohol promotion as "ridiculous and dangerous". Alcohol should never be recommended to patients to reduce cardiovascular risk as a substitute for the well-proven alternatives of appropriate diet, exercise, and drugs.

Some investigators hold that alcohol should be regarded as a recreational drug with potentially serious adverse effects on health and should not be promoted for cardio-protection.

Nevertheless, a large prospective non-randomized study has shown that moderate alcohol intake in individuals already at low risk based on body mass index, physical activity, smoking, and diet, yields further improvement in cardiovascular risk. A prospective study published in found "moderate alcohol consumption appears to decrease the risk of PAD in apparently healthy men. But when confounding by smoking was considered, the benefit extended to men.

The study concluded "an inverse association between alcohol consumption and peripheral arterial disease was found in nonsmoking men and women. A study found that moderate consumption of alcohol had a protective effect against intermittent claudication. The lowest risk was seen in men who drank 1 to 2 drinks per day and in women who drank half to 1 drink per day. Drinking in moderation has been found to help those who have suffered a heart attack survive it.

However, they noted that at present there have been no randomised trials to confirm the evidence which suggests a protective role of low doses of alcohol against heart attacks. Large amount of alcohol over the long term can lead to alcoholic cardiomyopathy. Alcoholic cardiomyopathy presents in a manner clinically identical to idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy , involving hypertrophy of the musculature of the heart that can lead to congestive heart failure.

Alcoholics may have anemia from several causes; [82] they may also develop thrombocytopenia from direct toxic effect on megakaryocytes , or from hypersplenism. Alcohol consumption increases the risk of atrial fibrillation , a type of abnormal heart rhythm.

This remains true even at moderate levels of consumption. Chronic heavy alcohol consumption impairs brain development, causes alcohol dementia , brain shrinkage , physical dependence , alcoholic polyneuropathy also known as 'alcohol leg' , increases neuropsychiatric and cognitive disorders and causes distortion of the brain chemistry. At present, due to poor study design and methodology, the literature is inconclusive on whether moderate alcohol consumption increases the risk of dementia or decreases it.

Epidemiological studies of middle-aged populations generally find the relationship between alcohol intake and the risk of stroke to be either U- or J-shaped. The predominant form of stroke in Western cultures is ischemic, whereas non-western cultures have more hemorrhagic stroke. In contrast to the beneficial effect of alcohol on ischemic stroke, consumption of more than 2 drinks per day increases the risk of hemorrhagic stroke. Light-to-moderate alcohol intake is associated with a lower risk of ischemic stroke which is likely to be, in part, causal.

Hemorrhagic stroke, on the other hand, displays a loglinear relationship with alcohol intake. Alcohol abuse is associated with widespread and significant brain lesions. Alcohol related brain damage is not only due to the direct toxic effects of alcohol; alcohol withdrawal, nutritional deficiency, electrolyte disturbances, and liver damage are also believed to contribute to alcohol-related brain damage.

Excessive alcohol intake is associated with impaired prospective memory. This impaired cognitive ability leads to increased failure to carry out an intended task at a later date, for example, forgetting to lock the door or to post a letter on time. The higher the volume of alcohol consumed and the longer consumed, the more severe the impairments. Chronic excessive alcohol intake is also associated with serious cognitive decline and a range of neuropsychiatric complications. The elderly are the most sensitive to the toxic effects of alcohol on the brain.

There is tentative evidence that drinking a small amount of alcohol may decrease the risk of Alzheimer's disease latter in life. Wernicke—Korsakoff syndrome is a manifestation of thiamine deficiency, usually as a secondary effect of alcohol abuse. Sergei Korsakoff and Carl Wernicke.

Wernicke's encephalopathy is the acute presentation of the syndrome and is characterised by a confusional state while Korsakoff's psychosis main symptoms are amnesia and executive dysfunction. Essential tremors —or, in the case of essential tremors on a background of family history of essential tremors, familial tremors—can be temporarily relieved in up to two-thirds of patients by drinking small amounts of alcohol. Ethanol is known to activate aminobutyric acid type A GABAA and inhibit N-methyl-D-aspartate NMDA glutamate receptors, which are both implicated in essential tremor pathology [] and could underlie the ameliorative effects.

For more details on this topic, see Essential tremor. Chronic use of alcohol used to induce sleep can lead to insomnia: Stopping chronic alcohol abuse can also lead to profound disturbances of sleep with vivid dreams. During withdrawal REM sleep is typically exaggerated as part of a rebound effect.

High rates of major depressive disorder occur in heavy drinkers and those who abuse alcohol. Whether it is more true that major depressive disorder causes self-medicating alcohol abuse, or the increased incidence of the disorder in alcohol abusers is caused by the drinking, is not known though some evidence suggests drinking causes the disorder.

About 15 percent of alcoholics commit suicide. Abuse of other drugs is also associated with an increased risk of suicide. About 33 percent of suicides in the under 35s are correlated with alcohol or other substance misuse. Social skills are significantly impaired in people suffering from alcoholism due to the neurotoxic effects of alcohol on the brain, especially the prefrontal cortex area of the brain.

The social skills that are impaired by alcohol abuse include impairments in perceiving facial emotions, prosody perception problems and theory of mind deficits; the ability to understand humour is also impaired in alcohol abusers.

Studies have shown that alcohol dependence relates directly to cravings and irritability. Alcoholism is associated with dampened activation in brain networks responsible for emotional processing e.

This is significantly higher than the increased risk of psychotic disorders seen from cannabis use making alcohol abuse a very significant cause of psychotic disorders. Alcohol-related psychosis may manifest itself through a kindling mechanism. The mechanism of alcohol-related psychosis is due to distortions to neuronal membranes, gene expression , as well as thiamin deficiency. It is possible in some cases that alcohol abuse via a kindling mechanism can cause the development of a chronic substance-induced psychotic disorder, i.

The effects of an alcohol-related psychosis include an increased risk of depression and suicide as well as psychosocial impairments. While alcohol initially helps social phobia or panic symptoms, with longer term alcohol misuse can often worsen social phobia symptoms and can cause panic disorder to develop or worsen, during alcohol intoxication and especially during the alcohol withdrawal syndrome.

This effect is not unique to alcohol but can also occur with long-term use of drugs which have a similar mechanism of action to alcohol such as the benzodiazepines , which are sometimes prescribed as tranquillizers to people with alcohol problems. It was noted that every individual has an individual sensitivity level to alcohol or sedative hypnotic drugs and what one person can tolerate without ill health another will suffer very ill health and that even moderate drinking can cause rebound anxiety syndromes and sleep disorders.

A person who is suffering the toxic effects of alcohol will not benefit from other therapies or medications as they do not address the root cause of the symptoms.

Addiction to alcohol, as with any drug of abuse tested so far, has been correlated with an enduring reduction in the expression of GLT1 EAAT2 in the nucleus accumbens and is implicated in the drug-seeking behavior expressed nearly universally across all documented addiction syndromes. This long-term dysregulation of glutamate transmission is associated with an increase in vulnerability to both relapse-events after re-exposure to drug-use triggers as well as an overall increase in the likelihood of developing addiction to other reinforcing drugs.

Drugs which help to re-stabilize the glutamate system such as N-acetylcysteine have been proposed for the treatment of addiction to cocaine , nicotine , and alcohol. The impact of alcohol on weight-gain is contentious: Alcohol use increases the risk of chronic gastritis stomach inflammation ; [2] [] it is one cause of cirrhosis , hepatitis , and pancreatitis in both its chronic and acute forms.

A study concluded, "Mild to moderate alcohol consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of the metabolic syndrome , with a favorable influence on lipids, waist circumference, and fasting insulin.

This association was strongest among whites and among beer and wine drinkers. A J-curve association between alcohol intake and metabolic syndrome was found: However, "odds ratios for the metabolic syndrome and its components tended to increase with increasing alcohol consumption.

Research has found that drinking reduces the risk of developing gallstones. Compared with alcohol abstainers, the relative risk of gallstone disease, controlling for age, sex, education, smoking, and body mass index, is 0. This inverse association was consistent across strata of age, sex, and body mass index. A large self-reported study published in found no correlation between gallbladder disease and multiple factors including smoking, alcohol consumption, hypertension, and coffee consumption.

Alcoholic liver disease is a major public health problem. For example, in the United States up to two million people have alcohol-related liver disorders. Treatment options are limited and consist of most importantly discontinuing alcohol consumption. In cases of severe liver disease, the only treatment option may be a liver transplant from alcohol abstinent donors. Research is being conducted into the effectiveness of anti-TNFs. Certain complementary medications, e.

Up to half a million people in the United States develop alcohol-related liver cancer. Alcohol abuse is a leading cause of both acute pancreatitis and chronic pancreatitis. Chronic alcohol ingestion can impair multiple critical cellular functions in the lungs. Recent research cites alcoholic lung disease as comparable to liver disease in alcohol-related mortality.

Research indicates that drinking alcohol is associated with a lower risk of developing kidney stones. One study concludes, "Since beer seemed to be protective against kidney stones, the physiologic effects of other substances besides ethanol, especially those of hops, should also be examined. Long term excessive intake of alcohol can lead to damage to the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system resulting in loss of sexual desire and impotence in men.

Excessive alcohol intake can result in hyperoestrogenisation. Animal studies are generally used to examine fundamental mechanisms that are common to both humans and nonhuman species. In addition, as noted above, many human diseases can be mimicked in animal models. Consequently, animal research provides information about fundamental mechanisms common to both humans and animals, and often suggests new hypotheses for evaluation in subsequent human studies.

The discovery of insulin provides an excellent example. It was also one of the most dramatic events in the history of health care research. Additional work produced an extract of the pancreas that reduced hyperglycemia and glycosuria in animals that had been previously rendered diabetic by removal of the pancreas. After further extensive evaluation with laboratory animals, the purified extract was deemed ready for human tests. These new human studies, using the purified extract, showed a tremendous clinical improvement in all subjects.

All of these events were necessary before human clinical trials of insulin could begin. Immediately after the first Research Agenda Conference in , a white paper was published on the status of basic science research in chiropractic, "Basic Science Research in Chiropractic: Studies examining subluxation or somatic dysfunction were grouped under the general term subluxation studies.

These studies used animals to model either subluxation 31 studies or SM 3 studies. The 3 SM studies used either manual 1 study or instrumental interventions 2 studies. Subluxation Mimic Models Only 1 subluxation mimic model has been introduced since the Research Agenda Conference. This model, the external link model, combines surgically implanted spinous attachment units and an external link system to produce reversible, mechanical fixation of 3 adjacent lumbar segments L4, L5, and L6 in the rat.

They observed stiffness and Z joint changes that developed within weeks after experimental fixation of a spine segment. These investigators reported significant differences in Z joint degeneration between fixed segments and nonfixed segments within the same animal. In addition, the occurrence and severity of articular degeneration and osteophyte formation on Z joints in rats with fixated vertebrae was significantly greater than similar degenerative changes, on comparable segments, in never-linked control rats.

This subluxation mimic study provided strong evidence that decreased vertebral motion vertebral fixation produced degenerative changes in the Z joint that were greater for longer periods of fixation. Generally, these degenerative changes continued to progress after removal of the fixating links. However, the data also suggested that time thresholds exist, before which removal of the experimental fixation links may spontaneously reduce or reverse the fixation-induced degenerative changes.

These time thresholds appeared to be earlier for facet surface degeneration occurring between 1 and 4 weeks of fixation time and later for osteophytic degeneration occurring between 4 and 8 weeks of fixation time. In addition, facet degeneration was observed to occur earlier than osteophyte formation. The existence of these time thresholds is intriguing, and may have clinical significance.

However, the authors warned that there is no known basis for projecting rat time frames to human subjects. Further work with this model and subsequent human studies are required to expand our understanding of these issues. The Degenerative Component of Subluxation. Org article collection This page contains many articles that explain the relationship between spinal subluxations and degenerative joint disease.

Cramer, DC, PhD National University of Health Sciences discuss the adhesions and degenerative changes that occur in zygapophyseal Z joints when a segment is subluxated. We applied the articular surface classification system developed by Jurvelin to evaluate contour and surface quality changes in rat patellae after varying periods of knee joint immobilization.

Numerous studies have demonstrated that joint immobilization induces degenerative changes in articular cartilage. We found a correlation between the duration of immobilization and changes in the measured area of contour and surface quality subclasses. Significant residual stiffness and misalignment remained after the links were removed. The progressive course of this lesion is consistent with subluxation theory and clinical chiropractic experience. More definitive studies are warranted, and the biologic significance of these finding should be investigated.

Answers are needed to pressing and fundamental questions such as: Does chiropractic subluxation actually occur? If so, does chiropractic spinal subluxation significantly threaten a patient's health?

Are there features that will allow researchers and clinicians to determine its accurate and precise location as well as its specific nature? Can spinal manipulative therapy prevent, stop the progression, or reverse adverse health effects related to chiropractic subluxation?

When these questions are answered, clinicians will be able to more objectively match the unique features of a patient's presentation to the diversity of chiropractic techniques, treatment frequency, number of visits, and treatment duration. The ADH were found in approximately equal numbers in the left and right Z joints and were most prevalent in the peripheral regions of the joint from medial to lateral and cephalad to caudal.

These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that hypomobility results in time-dependent degenerative changes and ADH development of the Z joints. The objective of this study was to evaluate potential correlations in the model between linking history, bone resorption, exudate formation, and experimentally induced intervertebral hypomobility.

Every connective tissue component of an articulation is affected by immobilization, and each major component is discussed individually; these include the articular cartilage, synovium, articular capsule, periarticular ligaments, subchondral bone, the intervertebral disc and the meninges.

Particular emphasis was placed on changes in the biochemical constituents of connective tissue, collagen, proteoglycans and hyaluronic acid, and the relation of these changes to alterations in the functional and biomechanical properties of the tissues. T hus an attempt is made here to establish a molecular basis for the theory and practice of chiropractic. The Neurologic Component of the Subluxation Complex. Thus, 2 areas are presented in this portion of the white paper.

The first area beginning immediately below represents a substantial portion of our knowledge base for understanding the neurophysiologic properties of paraspinal tissues. The second area beginning with the section on Effects of SMs on Muscle and Muscle Spindles reviews how neural elements of the vertebral column and their organization are affected by SM.

Information is included that predates the white paper when it was not included in that article. Sensory Input from Group I and II Afferents Proprioceptive Afferents Group I and II afferents are primary sensory neurons that convey information to the central nervous system from muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs, and other low threshold mechanoreceptors such as Ruffini endings and Pacinian corpuscles.

The structure and function of muscle spindles in the vertebral column have some unique aspects compared with those in the appendicular skeleton. Studies in animal models have described muscle spindles in the hind limb as single receptors located both deep in the muscle belly and close to the musculotendinous junction. These differences in spindle densities between axial neck muscles and appendicular muscles appears similar in the humans. Similarly, muscle spindles have been identified in the medial, intermediate, and lateral portions of the lumbar erector spinae in the human fetus.

The high spindle density in the cervical and lumbar muscles is consistent with the high percentage of slow twitch fibers found in muscles of these 2 regions.

A well-recognized concept related to the cat hindlimb is that the monosynaptic stretch reflex is elicited by excitation of muscle spindles. Afferents from each muscle spindle synapse upon a-motoneurons to that same muscle homonymous a-motoneurons. Conduction delays suggest that the reflex arc is not monosynaptic [ ] unlike that in the hindlimb.

In humans, indirect evidence for the presence of muscle spindles and muscle spindle reflexes in lumbar paraspinal muscles was obtained by measuring evoked cerebral potentials in response to vibration of the lumbar paraspinal muscles, [ ] which relatively selectively stimulates muscle spindles.

Because they monitor change in muscle length, the increased neural discharge signals to the central nervous system that the calf muscles are stretched or lengthened more than they actually are. This movement compensates for the illusory forward flexion at the ankle. Recently, Wise et al [ ] showed that spindles in muscles surrounding the elbow are sufficiently sensitive to signal 0. Thus, it seems reasonable to suppose that paravertebral muscle spindles can signal extremely small positional changes or movement of the vertebra to which their parent muscle is attached and, thus, contribute to control of intervertebral motions that might minimize or prevent noxious spinal loading.

Recent findings in humans suggest that proprioceptive input from paravertebral muscle spindles is important for normal reflex activity and repositioning of the lumbar spine. For example, tapping the erector spinae muscles normally elicits short latency paravertebral EMG activity. However, vibration of the lumbar paravertebral muscles, which increases background spindle discharge, inhibits this reflex response. Although healthy individuals can accurately reposition their lumbosacral spine, their repositioning ability is impaired when muscle spindle discharge is increased by applying vibration to the lumbar paravertebral muscles.

Interestingly, lumbosacral repositioning ability is impaired in individuals with a history of low back pain, but is improved in the presence of vibration, unlike normal individuals. Even small changes in paraspinal muscle forces are thought to have a large impact on a motion segment's biomechanical behavior and stability. A recent study suggests the presence of a previously unrecognized phenomenon in the lumbar multifidus and longissimus muscles that could affect proprioceptive mechanisms controlling paraspinal muscle function.

The findings suggested that either voluntary static postures or involuntary intervertebral positions, which are maintained for short durations, could elicit proprioceptive feedback errors and alter paraspinal muscle force.

The spine may be particularly susceptible to this phenomenon because intersegmental positions are not under voluntary control, and a vertebra's spatial position is not uniquely determined at low loads. Some endings are sensitive to only a single modality; others are polymodal. Deep tissues of the low back are innervated by afferent endings responsive to both mechanical and chemical stimuli. Gentle probing of the facet capsule, as well as forceful pulling on the supraspinous ligament, elicited a slowly adapting discharge from these afferent nerves.

In a systematic study of 57 unmyelinated afferents from the tail and lumbar region of the rat, Bove and Light [ ] found mechanonociceptive endings in muscle bellies, tendon, subcutaneous tissue, and neurovascular bundles. Up to a third of the afferents had receptive endings in more than 1 tissue.

No receptive fields were found in the facet joint capsule. Most afferents, including 7 with receptive fields in or near the facet joint capsule, responded in a graded fashion to the direction of a nonnoxious load applied to the joint. This latter finding contrasts with afferents studied in the cervical spine where almost all group III afferents studied had high mechanical thresholds. Mustard oil intensely activates high-threshold C-fibers group IV afferents.

The large number of muscles affected by inflammation of cervical paraspinal muscles may relate to the hyperconvergence, described by Gillette et al [ ] see next paragraph , and to the communication between segmental paraspinal tissues via intersegmental connections within the spinal cord, reported by the laboratory of Pickar. This type of input was termed hyperconvergent. Axons Inside or Outside the IVF Adhesions, fixations, or discal herniation may produce an ectopic source of neural activity.

Bove et al [ ] inflamed the axons of mechanically sensitive group II, III, and IV afferents that innervate both superficial and deep structures. Increasing evidence shows that the mechanical and chemical consequences of a herniated disk can affect neural tissue within the IVF. Dorsal roots and dorsal root ganglia DRG are more susceptible to the effects of mechanical compression than are axons of peripheral nerves because impaired or altered function is produced at substantially lower pressures.

Although pressures in the IVF were not measured, this lesion produced mechanical hyperalgesia in the hindlimb and increased the excitability of dorsal root ganglion cells. The application of nucleus pulposus to a lumbar nerve root increases spontaneous nerve activity and increases the mechanical sensitivity of dorsal root ganglion cells.

Effects of SMs on Muscle and Muscle Spindles Spinal manipulation induces somatomotor changes, that is, changes in muscle activity, apparently because of sensory input from the somatic nervous system. In asymptomatic patients, Herzog's group [ , ] showed that PA spinal manipulative treatments applied to the cervical, thoracic, lumbar, and sacroiliac regions increased paraspinal EMG activity in a pattern related to the region of the spine that was manipulated.

The EMG response latencies occur within 50 to milliseconds after initiation of the manipulative thrust. Similarly, SM using an Activator-adjusting instrument applied to a transverse process elicited paraspinal EMG activity at the same segmental level but within 2 to 3 milliseconds.

Colloca and Keller [ ] confirmed these latter findings in symptomatic patients with low back pain and, in addition, reported that the increased EMG activity, while beginning within 2 to 3 milliseconds of the manipulation, reached its peak within 50 to milliseconds. Paraspinal EMG responses were greatest in magnitude when the manipulation was delivered close to the electrode site, and interestingly, the more chronic the low back pain, the less the EMG response. The EMG electrodes were not placed relative to any physical finding in the low back such as palpable muscle tension, as perceived by the practitioner or tissue tenderness as experienced by the patient.

Spinal manipulation's effect on paraspinal muscle activity is not exclusively excitatory. In 1 symptomatic patient with spontaneous muscle activity in the thoracic spine, Herzog's group [ ] observed reduced paraspinal EMG activity within 1 second after a thoracic SM.

In a case series study, DeVocht et al [ ] collected surface EMG activity from 16 participants in 2 chiropractic offices. Electrodes were placed over 2 sites exhibiting paraspinal muscle tension determined by manual palpation. Spinal manipulation was administered to 8 participants using Activator protocol. The other 8 were treated using Diversified protocol. The effects of SM on paraspinal EMG activity may also be associated with increases in muscle strength.

Suter et al [ ] studied symptomatic patients with sacroiliac joint dysfunction, anterior knee pain, and evidence of motor inhibition to knee extensor muscles. A side posture SM applied to the sacroiliac joint significantly decreased the inhibition of the knee extensors on the side of the body to which the manipulation was applied.

Similarly, Keller and Colloca [ ] found that erector spinae isometric strength assessed using EMG was increased after spinal compared with sham manipulation. A series of studies have addressed how SM affects central processing of somatomotor information. Spinal manipulation can increase the excitability of motor pathways in the central nervous system and depress the inflow of sensory information from muscle spindles to these motor pathways.

This may, in part, account for the disparate clinical findings described above. In asymptomatic patients, Dishman et al [ ] showed that SM increased central motor excitability. EMG activity from gastrocnemius muscle, evoked by direct activation of descending corticospinal tracts using transcranial magnetic stimulation, was larger after lumbar SM compared with simply positioning the patient but not applying the manipulation.

However, SM can also depress the H-reflex. Manipulation applied to the sacroiliac joint in a PA direction decreased the magnitude of the tibial nerve H-reflex for up to 15 minutes in asymptomatic humans. Similarly, SM delivered to the cervical region depressed the median nerve H-reflex. Instead, it appears specific to the region of the spine manipulated because cervical manipulation did not affect the tibial nerve H-reflex. Sensory input from tissues of the facet joint elicited by SM might reflexively decrease paraspinal muscle activity.

Indahl et al [ ] elicited reflex longissimus and multifidus EMG activity by electrically stimulating the intervertebral disk in a porcine preparation. Stretching the facet joint by injecting 1 mL of physiologic saline abolished the EMG activity. Haldeman's group [ , ] has shown that SM can also affect higher centers in the brain. Using magnetic stimulation, Zhu et al [ ] stimulated lumbar paraspinal muscles and recorded the evoked cerebral potentials.

Stimulation of paraspinal muscle spindles using vibration reduced the magnitude of the cerebral potentials. Similarly, muscle spasm in human patients reduced the magnitude of the paraspinal muscle evoked cerebral potentials. Spinal manipulation reversed these effects, reducing muscle spasm and restoring the magnitude of the evoked cerebral potentials. Using MRI scans in human subjects, Cramer et al [ 10, 11 ] showed that a side-posture SM accompanied by cavitation gaps the facet joints.

The synovial space of the lumbar facet joints increased in width an average of 2. By comparison, the joint space widened by only 1. The MRI scan was performed immediately after manipulation and lasted 20 minutes. Although not studied directly, it seems likely, based upon data from the laboratory of Khalsa, [ ] that joint separations of these magnitudes are sufficient to load the facet joint tissues. If so, this raises the possibility that tissues surrounding the facet joint could be stretched for periods longer than the duration of the manipulation itself.

Sensory input from tissues surrounding the facet joint that is graded with direction of facet movement [ ] could elicit reflex muscle responses similar to those measured by Indahl et al. Another type of low-threshold mechanoreceptor, a presumed Pacinian corpuscle, uniquely responded to the impulse of a manipulative-like load, that is, it did not respond to loads with a slower force-time profile.

When an SM's duration was varied between 25 and milliseconds, durations shorter than milliseconds produced abrupt increases in discharge rates from 6 low-threshold mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the lumbar multifidus and longissimus muscles.

Interestingly, Gillette et al [ , ] showed that both weak and strong mechanical stimuli applied to paraspinal tissues can suppress spinal cord neurons that receive noxious input from the low back. Effects of SMs on Pain or Pain Processing Numerous studies suggest that SM alters central processing of noxious stimuli because pain tolerance or pain threshold levels can increase after manipulation.

In patients with low back pain, Glover et al [ ] examined areas of lumbar skin that were painful to a pinprick. Fifteen minutes after SM of the lumbar region, the size of the area from which the pinpricks evoked pain was reduced, compared with the control group receiving detuned short wave therapy.

Terrett and Vernon [ ] quantified the reduction in pain sensitivity after SM using graded, electrical stimulation of cutaneous paraspinal tissues. A blinded observer assessed the minimal current necessary to evoke pain pain threshold and the maximal tolerable current that evoked pain pain tolerance in subjects with tender regions of the thoracic spine.

Spinal manipulation significantly increased pain tolerance levels 1. Over the next 9. The threshold measurement indicated the amount of pressure at which the perception of pressure changed to the perception of pain.

The algometer was applied to 6 tender points in the neck region. The participant identified his own specific tender points. In an effort to extend the findings in this case study, Cote et al [ ] focused on chronic mechanical low back pain. A pressure algometer was applied to 3 sites in the lumbar region. The sites were standardized myofascial trigger points associated with low back pain. Unlike Vernon's earlier case study, these trigger points were not necessarily clinically relevant, that is, they were not identified as tender by participants, nor were they necessarily the most sensitive points for each individual.

Unlike Vernon's case study, no changes in pressure-pain thresholds were observed. This statement from the original white paper does not adequately express the state of chiropractic science. It seems more accurate to say that nearly all the proposed theories to explain the effects and mechanisms of action of SM have not been fully tested.

Spinal manipulation is a biomechanical input generally delivered at high velocity. The question of how a short-lasting biomechanical input can presumably have long-lasting changes on a person's health needs answering.

Determine the discharge characteristics ie, the pattern or frequency of action potentials of primary sensory neurons innervating the vertebral column in response to high-velocity loading. Determine how these patterns of activity affect the signaling properties of neurons in the central nervous system, for example, do they produce long-lasting changes.

Determine if SM produces long-lasting changes in spinal biomechanics, which would presumably produce long-lasting changes in sensory input. Determine if SM produces long-lasting changes in neuromuscular control of paraspinal muscles, possibly comparing the use of fine wire electrodes with surface EMG or scanning EMG.

Determine if paraspinal tissues have any unique physiology, compared with appendicular tissues, by comparing, for example, reflex changes initiated from sensory receptors in appendicular tissues with reflex responses initiated from sensory receptors in axial tissues.

Identify objective changes in the vertebral column that lead one to think that SM is needed. Use new technologies to determine changes in intersegmental stiffness.

Determine if hyperalgesia is associated with the manipulable lesion. Determine whether the manipulable lesion is inflamed and, conversely, if inflammation of spinal and paraspinal tissues can cause the manipulable lesion. A critical mass of chiropractic-oriented scientists able to easily interact and develop new ideas is critically important to drive chiropractic science. Basic and clinically-oriented basic scientists are scattered almost individually at chiropractic colleges and are isolated.

This is in sharp contrast to the traditional university setting where a wide variety of fields are represented and allow for not only interdisciplinary collaborations but provide opportunities for informed discussion leading to inspiration and the writing and submission of research grants. Consideration should be given to the relative merits of developing basic science infrastructure at chiropractic colleges either in contrast to or in addition to establishing a small cadre of chiropractic scientists within a traditional university setting containing established infrastructure in terms of space, equipment and collaborative potential with established scientists from multiple disciplines.

The Neurologic Component of Subluxation. Chiropractic and Spinal Pain A Chiro. Org article collection Enjoy this collection of articles that reviews chiropractic's impressive impact on pain. Non-musculoskeletal Disorders and Chiropractic A Chiro. Org article collection Enjoy this collection of articles discussuing chiropractic results with non-musculoskeletal complaints. In contrast, limited concepts of spinal biomechanical faults, modes of possible nerve involvement, and etiologic rationales of functional changes promote narrow viewpoints, disciplines, and therapeutic approaches, as well as foster empiricism and dogma.

Awareness of the varied concepts of structural lesions, neuroinsults, and the causes of abnormal functional changes promotes wider perspective for intuitive practices, multifaceted observations, and fewer practices with reliance on empiricism that is dictated by dogmatic frameworks.

Whether subclinical recurrent neck pain alters motor learning is currently unknown. If this is the case, it could help explain why maladaptive motor patterns are maintained, potentially setting up a cycle of recurrent and chronic pain.

There is a large body of evidence that reveals structural and functional changes within the CNS of people with chronic musculoskeletal disorders. These differences persist over 4 weeks, suggesting that the multisensory technique is reliable and that these differences in the SCNP group do not improve on their own in the absence of treatment. This novel finding objectively demonstrates long-term change consistent with improved neurophysiological regulation, adaptability and resilience in patients undergoing chiropractic care, and suggests the utility of chiropractic care for outcomes greater than only musculoskeletal improvements.

Both models purport to treat not the symptoms but the cause. We conclude there is a need for more scientific documentation on the validity of FN. Other findings included that crepitus prevalence increased with age, was higher in participants with LBP than in healthy participants, and overall decreased after SMT.

It is possible that these findings explain one of the mechanisms by which chiropractic care improves function and reduces pain for chronic pain patients.

Glucose uptake in skeletal muscles showed a trend toward decreased metabolism after SMT, although the difference was not significant. Other measurements indicated relaxation of cervical muscle tension, decrease in salivary amylase level suppression of sympathetic nerve activity , and pain relief after SMT. Cervical Spine Disorders and its Association with Tinnitus: The "Triple" Hypothesis Med Hypotheses. These findings should be followed up in the relevant populations.

This progress may provide a new paradigm in understanding SMT. Ankle joint position sense improved across the 4- and week assessments 0. Firstly, this study reproduced previous findings of SEPs studies that have shown that adjusting dysfunctional spinal segments alters early sensorimotor integration SMI of input from the upper limb as evidenced with a decrease in N30 SEP complex amplitudes.

I present a theory that accounts for the initiation and potential consequences of neuromusculoskeletal pain incorporating failure of the mechanism of muscle relaxation and resulting in pain and compromise of the lymphatic system. The theory provides an alternative to current theories and hypotheses of the cause and consequences of neuromusculoskeletal pain.

This in turn suggests, that any clinical analgesic effect of HVLA-manipulation is likely related to the amelioration of a pre-existing painful problem, such as reduction of biomechanical dysfunction. Subgroup analysis showed a significant effect of SMT on increasing mechanical pressure pain threshold PPT at the remote sites of stimulus application supporting a potential central nervous system mechanism.

Future studies of SMT related hypoalgesia should include multiple experimental stimuli and test at multiple anatomical sites. Their quality was generally moderate.

Second pain provoked by temperature seems to respond to SMT but not first pain. Most studies revealed a local or regional hypoalgesic effect whereas a systematic effect was unclear.

Manipulation of a "restricted motion segment" "manipulable lesion" seemed not to be essential to analgesia. In relation to outcome, there was no discernible difference between studies with higher vs.

What is Different About Spinal Pain? Both mechanical and chemical factors have been identified as important for inducing radiculopathy. In lumbar spondylosis, facet joint osteophytes may contribute to nerve root compression, which may induce radiculopathy.

Furthermore, inflammation may occur in the facet joint, as in other synovial joints. Inflamed synovium may thus release inflammatory cytokines and induce nerve root injury with subsequent radiculopathy. In this study when inflammation was induced in a facet joint, inflammatory reactions spread to nerve roots, and leg symptoms were induced by chemical factors. This work supports yet another aspect of the Vertebral Subluxation Complex hypothesis.

Manipulation of a specific spinal segment may play an important role in optimizing recovery from lesions involving IVF inflammation. Chiropractic scored the highest pain relief rating 7.

However, the underlying mechanisms for manipulation-related pain relief remain largely unexplored. The purpose of the current study was to determine which spinal neurotransmitter receptors mediate manipulation-induced antihyperalgesia. Rats were injected with capsaicin 50 microl, 0. The mechanical withdrawal threshold decreases 2 h after capsaicin injection. Six tender muscle spots were measured bilaterally in a subject with chronic right-sided neck and scapular pain. The right side muscle values were all significantly lower than those on the left and were lower than the normal cut-off value of 3.

In , Vernon et al [ 12 ] reported on 9 subjects with chronic neck pain. Baseline PPT values were obtained bilaterally around the painful segment fixation for a total of 4 measured sites. Five subjects were randomly assigned to receive a rotary manipulation, and 4 subjects received the same sort of oscillatory mobilization that had been used in the endorphin study.

This difference was statistically significant at all 4 points. Pain sensitivity was assessed prior to and immediately following the assigned intervention during the first session.

In aromatherapy, it helps deepen meditation and quiet the mind. Mixed with bergamot and lavender oils in a 1: Essential oils can be used in three different ways: Aromatherapy for anxiety is very popular because our sense of smell triggers powerful emotional responses.

When the scent of an essential oil is inhaled, molecules enter the nasal cavities and stimulate a firing of mental response in the limbic system of the brain. These stimulants regulate stress or calming responses, such as heart rate, breathing patterns, production of hormones and blood pressure. Aromatherapy can be obtained by using it in a bath, as direct inhalations, hot water vapor, vaporizer or humidifier, fan, vent, perfume, cologne, or — one of my favorites — through aromatherapy diffusers.

Many essential oils can be ingested by the mouth; however, it is critical to make sure that the oils you use are safe and pure. Many oils on the market may be diluted or blended with synthetics that are unsafe for ingesting. The Food and Drug Administration has approved some essential oils generically for internal use and given them the generally recognized as safe GRAS designation for human consumption.

Other oral application options include capsules, adding a drop or two to your favorite beverage, making a tea, and cooking. Many prefer topical uses of essential oils. Topical application is a process of placing an essential oil on the skin, hair, mouth, teeth, nails or mucous membranes of the body.

When the oils touch the skin, they penetrate rapidly. Since they are so potent, it is important to dilute and blend with a carrier oil, such as sweet almond, jojoba, olive, avocado or coconut oil. You can apply the blend directly to an affected area, on the bottoms of the feet, rims of the ears, using compresses, in baths or through massage. Never ingest any essential oils or apply undiluted to the skin without proper training or medical supervision. It is critical to understand how best to use them.

Always consult a specialist and test the area, proceeding with caution as they may react differently to different individuals, especially children and pregnant women. If you feel like you could use some more in depth information on Essential Oils Dr.

Uses of Frankincense Oil